The language distinguishes
32 sounds: 4 vowel sounds and 28 consonant sounds. They are described below.
The spelling system was only standardised in 1578 b.S., more than four centuries after the Volkek-Oshra moved to Ximax. Thus, the spelling used in texts originating from before that date do not always match what is shown here.
There are also some older names, such as “Volkek-Oshra” itself (standard spelling: Vork'ekoshra or Vork'ek Oshra), that acquired widely accepted spellings before that date. In many such cases, the older spelling remains common in informal writings and texts written by non-Volkek-Oshra, while the standard spelling is used in formal texts written by the Volkek-Oshra themselves.
Adding suffixes beginning with r or a vowel to some words ending in certain consonants cause them to change those consonants. Specifically:
These words are shown in the
dictionary with “(w)”, “(')”, or “(w')” at the end respectively, indicating that
the bracketed letters are not to be written unless the word is followed
immediately by a suffix beginning in r or a vowel.
For example, the verb shuruk(w), “to cure or heal someone”, would be written without a “w” when it occurs without a suffix or with a suffix beginning in a consonant other than r.
“I cured them.”
However, when the word is immediately followed by a suffix beginning with a vowel, such as ashka, the “w” appears.
“I was cured.”
Compound words may be written as a single word or separated into two or more words. The exception is if the compound word contains a proper noun, in which case the proper noun must be separate. Hyphens are sometimes used to link the separated words together. The main word always comes first, followed by the modifying word.
Raraskhrad / raras-khrad /
“Milari”, literally “mountain-cat”
Ghwad-Vork'ekoshra / Ghwad Vork'ekoshra
Compound words are treated as a single unit when it comes to inflections, regardless of how they are written.
If, within a compound word, a word ending in “(w)”, “(')”, or “(w')” is followed by a word beginning in r or a vowel, the bracketed letters have to be written.
Akshak'rugh / akshak'-rugh /
“Pike”, literally “long-spear”